- At the moment, electric cars offer only slight emission savings compared with combustion cars. The lifecycle emissions of an urban combustion car can be estimated at 29.75 tonnes of CO2, and those of an urban electric car at 30 tonnes. In the premium segment, a combustion car will emit around 35.5 tonnes of CO2 and an electric car 34 tonnes.
- With the energy transition path proposed in PEP 2040 and the current technologies to reduce emissions of combustion cars, the CO2 savings from replacing the fleet with electric cars would be negligible, if at all, on an economy-wide level.
- The proposal in the Fit for 55 to ban the sale of combustion engine cars from 2036 throughout the EU is likely to result in several years old combustion engine cars from Western European countries ending up in the new EU Member States, including Poland.
- Electric cars are expensive for the average Pole. A car from the urban segment costs three annual salaries, while a premium segment car costs five to six salaries. In Poland, there is no infrastructure for charging BEV on the road, and the law hampers the installation of charging points near a garage in a multi-family housing estate. In practice, this means that replacing the fleet with an electric one may concern buses or vans.
- Passenger cars offer a reduction in emissions for prosumers who will be able to load the car using, for example, photovoltaic panels. This is an attractive option to reduce transport costs, but only available to the wealthy part of society.
- The emissions performance of hybrids is unclear and much higher than official manufacturer data suggests. Its level depends on the conditions and driving style, but can even reach that of a premium segment combustion car. At the same time, city drivers involved in passenger transport indicate that hybrids are currently more cost-effective than BEVs and combustion cars, especially when fitted with LPG systems, due to lower purchase costs and comparable running costs.
- Rare earth elements are used extensively in the construction of electric cars and are sometimes exploited in a predatory manner, often in violation of human rights, as in the case of cobalt mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
In the last decade, the transformation process in Polish agriculture has significantly slowed down, in which dated production structure persists. Almost 1.2 million agricultural holdings